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  • Pursuing sustainable productivity with millions of smallholder farmers

    Nature volume 555, pages 363–366 (15 March 2018)doi:10.1038/nature25785

    Zhenling cui1, hongyan Zhang1, Xinping chen1, chaochun Zhang1, Wenqi ma2, chengdong huang1, Weifeng Zhang1, Guohua mi1, Yuxin miao1, Xiaolin Li1, Qiang Gao3, Jianchang Yang4, Zhaohui Wang5, Youliang Ye6, Shiwei Guo7, Jianwei Lu8, Jianliang huang8, Shihua Lv9, Yixiang Sun10, Yuanying Liu11, Xianlong Peng11, Jun ren12, Shiqing Li13, Xiping Deng13, Xiaojun Shi14, Qiang Zhang15, Zhiping Yang15, Li Tang16, changzhou Wei17, Liangliang Jia18, Jiwang Zhang19, mingrong he19, Yanan Tong5, Qiyuan Tang20, Xuhua Zhong21, Zhaohui Liu22, Ning cao23, changlin Kou24, hao Ying1, Yulong Yin1, Xiaoqiang Jiao1, Qingsong Zhang1, mingsheng Fan1, rongfeng Jiang1, Fusuo Zhang1 & Zhengxia Dou25

    2018年

    重点作者:崔振岭;陈新平

    打电话作者:张福锁

    水资源与环境学院

           Sustainably feeding a growing population is a grand challenge1–3, and one that is particularly difficult in regions that are dominated by smallholder farming. Despite local successes4–8, mobilizing vast smallholder communities with science- and evidence-based management practices to simultaneously address production and pollution problems has been infeasible. Here we report the outcome of concerted efforts in engaging millions of Chinese smallholder farmers to adopt enhanced management practices for greater yield and environmental performance. First, we conducted field trials across China’s major agroecological zones to develop locally applicable recommendations using a comprehensive decisionsupport program. Engaging farmers to adopt those recommendations involved the collaboration of a core network of 1,152 researchers with numerous extension agents and agribusiness personnel. From 2005 to 2015, about 20.9 million farmers in 452 counties adopted enhanced management practices in fields with a total of 37.7 million cumulative hectares over the years. Average yields (maize, rice and wheat) increased by 10.8–11.5%, generating a net grain output of 33 million tonnes (Mt). At the same time, application of nitrogen decreased by 14.7–18.1%, saving 1.2 Mt of nitrogen fertilizers. The increased grain output and decreased nitrogen fertilizer use were equivalent to US$12.2 billion. Estimated reactive nitrogen losses averaged 4.5–4.7 kg nitrogen per Megagram (Mg) with the intervention compared to 6.0–6.4 kg nitrogen per Mg without. Greenhouse gas emissions were 328 kg, 812 kg and 434 kg CO2 equivalent per Mg of maize, rice and wheat produced, respectively, compared to 422 kg, 941 kg and 549 kg CO2 equivalent per Mg without the intervention. On the basis of a large-scale survey (8.6 million farmer participants) and scenario analyses, we further demonstrate the potential impacts of implementing the enhanced management practices on China’s food security and sustainability outlook.

           资金研究是在生养中破解农业绿色发展之重中之重理论与艺术课题,率先提出了绿色增产增效理论和艺术新思路,以高效利用光温资源之高产群体定量设计充分挖掘品种的高产潜力、以存量调控根层水肥供应支撑高产群体来促成能源高效利用,最大程度地减少环境污染,落实了肩上作物高产与非法水肥高效协调统一,打破了高产与高效难以协同的国际问题。
           (1)确立了“下生产中来,到生产中扮”、围绕生产限制因子,与村民一起开展适合本地情况又瞄准国际学术前沿的“立地顶天”的研制思路。最先证明,浅绿色增产增效技术可以大面积实现作物增产和条件减排的双赢,回答了继续增产是否必须依赖于水肥资源之大气跃入和农作物高产、养分资源高效和环境保护能否协同等国内外学术界一直在争论的重中之重不利命题。
           (2)始建了以扎根农村的“科技小院”为主导、以覆盖全国之“高等教育专家网络、政府推广网络、校企合作网络"为平台,与千百万农民一起大面积推广应用绿色增产增效技术之流行技术利用模式。10年统共增加粮食生产3,300万吨,调减氮肥用量120万吨,增收节支793亿元。
           (3)丰盛表明未来我国粮食安全完全可以以更低的辐射源条件代价来促成,浅绿色增产增效技术之更新与利用为中华环保走出一枝产出高效、产品安全、水资源节约、条件协调的革命化农业发展道路绘就了蓝图!

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